This paper sketches the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city, which is defined as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. These technologies establish the functions of the city and also provide ways in which citizen groups, governments, businesses, and various of agencies who have an interest in generating more efficient and equitable systems can interact in augmenting their understanding of the city and also providing essential engagement in the design and planning process. Seven goals are defined: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, the authors add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations.
The working paper was prepared by the authors: Michael Batty (UCL, London), Kay Axhausen (ETH, Zurich), Giannotti Fosca (Universit di Pisa), Alexei Pozdnoukhov (National University of Ireland), Armando Bazzani (Universita di Bologna), Monica Wachowicz (University of New Brunswick), Georgios Ouzounis (JRC) and Yuval Portugali (Tel-Aviv University).
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